When Venezuela, Ecuador and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name "Republic of New Granada".
Although the Colombian Constitution specifies Spanish (Castellano) as the official language in all Colombian territory, other languages spoken in the country by ethnic groups -- approximately 68 languages -- each is also official in its own territory.is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil, to the south with Ecuador and Peru.It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments.The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona.
The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá.
Independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved.
What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada.
The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886. Since the 1960s, the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, which escalated in the 1990s, but then decreased from 2005 onward.
Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world giving rise to a rich cultural heritage.
This has also been influenced by Colombia's varied geography, and the imposing landscape of the country has resulted in the development of very strong regional identities.